After Extensive Data Gathering and Analysis—Plus a Worldwide Media Frenzy—NASA’s Famed Twins Study has Begun to Yield Results


It has been called the most comprehensive analysis of individual human beings ever conducted in scientific history. In March 2015, astronaut Scott Kelly rode a Soyuz spacecraft to the International Space Station and proceeded to spend 340 days in orbit as part of an in-depth study of the long-term effects of space travel on the human body. As rare and valuable as that effort was—representing the longest-ever space mission for a NASA astronaut—it was all the more remarkable thanks to a tantalizing offer from Kelly’s identical twin brother: Mark Kelly, himself a retired astronaut. Since Mark was staying on terra firma, he volunteered to serve as an experimental control, allowing scientists to compare two genetically identical men—one on Earth, the other in zero gravity some 220 miles above it, traveling at almost five miles per second.


The cover of Science featuring the Twins Study.

During Scott’s time on the space station (as well as six months before and after his mission), the brothers underwent physical and cognitive testing and contributed numerous blood, urine, saliva and fecal samples for analysis. Dubbed the NASA Twins Study, the effort comprised 10 interconnected research projects—on such topics as cognition, cardiovascular health, genomic changes, immune response, and the composition of gut, skin and oral bacteria—funded by a total of $1.5 million in agency grants and involving dozens of investigators around the country and abroad.

One of those projects, which focused on how Scott’s environment affected how his genes were expressed and regulated, was led by Weill Cornell Medicine’s Dr. Chris Mason—and along with the nine others, it would make headlines around the world. In April, the Twins Study landed on the cover of the journal Science, which featured a 20-page article summing up the results—the first publication of what’s expected to be many, as researchers continue to parse a mother lode of data. “Overall, the Twins Study is a tour de force about how the body’s adaptability extends to outer space,” says Dr. Mason, the WorldQuant Foundation Research Scholar in physiology and biophysics and an associate professor of neuroscience, of physiology and biophysics, and of computational genomics in computational biomedicine. “The vast majority of changes we saw returned to normal—but about 8 or 9% remained. So it also shows that the body was still to some degree adapting to terrestrial life, even six months after Scott Kelly returned to Earth.”

Among the Mason Lab’s findings were that thousands of genes became active in Scott while remaining dormant in Mark—an effect that became more marked the longer Scott stayed in space. Those genes included ones that play a role in repairing damaged DNA—which may reflect the fact that while in space, Scott was exposed to nearly 50 times as much radiation as his brother was on Earth. Also active were genes related to inflammation, which could be due to the inherent stresses of space travel on the human body; these include the effects of being in zero gravity, such as fluid shifts and bone loss. For Dr. Francine Garrett-Bakelman, who was the first author on the Science paper, the findings made sense. “I’m a physician-scientist, and as a physician, I thought, ‘Yes, an astronaut is under significant stress,’” says Dr. Garrett-Bakelman, who completed her research and medical postgraduate training at Weill Cornell Medicine (where she was an instructor and an assistant attending physician at NewYork-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell Medical Center while working in Dr. Mason’s lab and that of Dr. Ari Melnick, the Gebroe Family Professor of Hematology/Oncology).  She is now an assistant professor of medicine and of biochemistry and molecular genetics at the University of Virginia School of Medicine, as well as an adjunct assistant professor of medicine at Weill Cornell Medicine. “He gets launched into space, spends a year in a foreign environment, then comes down to Earth subjected to a tremendous amount of g-forces. It tells us that the human body is resilient and responding normally to a stressful situation.”


MIRROR IMAGES: Twins Mark (left) and Scott Kelly. Opposite page: Scott on a spacewalk—his third—in December 2015. Credit: Robert Markowitz/ NASA / Johnson Space Center

As Dr. Mason notes, a particularly striking finding was the extent to which Scott’s immune system was on high alert once he went to space: every type of immune cell the researchers measured was active at levels that are practically unheard of. And in fact, Dr. Mason says, the response was even more dramatic when Scott came home. “In his memoir, he says that when he landed back on Earth he didn’t feel well—and we could see why very clearly, in his blood work and gene expression data,” says Dr. Mason, who is also a cofounder, equity stakeholder and consultant for Onegevity Health, a company that provides a comprehensive molecular portrait and customized recommendations for an individual’s health based on integrated analysis of longitudinal blood, genetics and microbiome profiles. “There were all these markers for inflammation and for immune cells kicking into high gear. His body was basically having this moment of, ‘Wow, I’m back in gravity’—these markers in the bloodstream were sometimes 4,000% higher than normal. So we could see that while going to space was hard on the body, returning to gravity was, in some ways, even harder.”

One of the Twins Study’s most surprising discoveries related to telomeres, sections of DNA located at the ends of chromosomes. Normally, as people get older their telomeres get shorter—and researchers had expected to see that happen in space, possibly even faster due to stress and radiation exposure. But in fact—as an investigator at Colorado State University discovered and the Dr. Mason Lab confirmed with new DNA sequencing and analysis methods—Scott’s telomeres got longer, though they reverted to normal after he came home. Why? Researchers don’t yet know. “We need to do a lot more science on this,” says Dr. Cem Meydan, a research associate in the Dr. Mason Lab and a co-first author on the Science paper. “We need to find out why this is happening, and whether we can prevent it or study it for other health-related purposes, such as to fight cancer or aging.”

Dr. Mason and his colleagues emphasize that when it comes to understanding how the human body reacts to being in space, the Twins Study had an obvious and inherent limitation: it had only one subject who actually went aloft. Furthermore, says Dr. Garrett-Bakelman, “this was a single study of one white male; what happens in women, or in people from other racial or cultural backgrounds, we have no idea. Trying to infer anything at all is very difficult without having additional subjects’ data to look at.” And of course, given that the Kelly brothers were NASA’s first (and so far, only) identical twin astronauts, in many ways the study was a one-of-a-kind opportunity. “As a geneticist, I wish every person was a twin or a triplet so we could study them,” Dr. Mason says with a laugh. “It’s unclear if or when this will happen again. It’s going to be hard to match this study anytime soon.” Still, when it comes to figuring out whether humans could survive a mission to Mars or beyond, he and his colleagues call the study’s findings highly encouraging. “Obviously it’s a sample size of one, so it’s hard to make generalized statements—but if we saw similar results in multiple people, I think it bodes well for long-term space travel,” Dr. Meydan says. “Most of the changes we saw can potentially be targeted; in the next five or 10 years, we could develop drugs, interventions or other technology such as shielding for radiation or clothing for reversing fluid shifts in the body.”

Dr. Mason also points out that the Twins Study could have benefits beyond the findings themselves; some of the procedures and analytic techniques its researchers developed could be a boon to terrestrial medicine. “It forced us to be nimble with limited numbers of cells and to sequence really quickly,” he says, noting that their methods could inform rapid diagnosis of infectious pathogens or genetic analysis of a cancer patient’s tumor. Working with some of the same collaborators as in the Twins Study, Dr. Mason’s team also helped pioneer the first-ever DNA sequencing experiments on the International Space Station. Plus, Dr. Garrett-Bakelman says, the study stands as a prime example of how broad scientific questions can be answered through large-scale collaboration. “If you think about it, there were over 80 authors on the Science paper—from multiple institutions, locations and countries—in addition to all the support staff at NASA that helped us do this,” she says. “It was truly a challenging project to complete, and it wouldn’t have been possible without that entire team. That’s how these projects should be done: you bring in expertise from many different areas, think outside the box and piece things together that you would have never thought about unless you were with all those people in the same room.”

With the overarching Science paper out, the Mason Lab has another half dozen publications in progress—continuing to explore what research associate and co-author Daniela Bezdan calls “the most comprehensive and integrated molecular view to date of how a human responds to spaceflight.” For Bezdan and many of her colleagues, just working on a space-related project was a wish come true. The first time she got an e-mail from NASA, she was so excited that she took a screenshot of the header; now, every 10th message in her in-box is from the agency. “We can contribute to making space exploration possible, which could be important for the survival of the human species; it’s something bigger than ourselves,” Bezdan says. “When I think of space travel, I think of three compartments: we are now describing what happens in space; the next step is to understand it—and the third step is to use it for our advantage.”

In Scott Kelly’s 2017 memoir—entitled “Endurance: A Year in Space, a Lifetime of Discovery”—he describes his record-setting tenure on the space station, the longest-duration mission for a NASA astronaut. Toward the end of the book, he contemplates his contribution to the Twins Study, noting that he expects to continue to be a test subject for the rest of his life. “Science is a slow-moving process,” he writes, “and it may be years before any great understanding or breakthrough is reached from the data. Sometimes the questions science asks are answered by other questions. This doesn’t particularly bother me—I will leave the science up to the scientists. For me, it’s worth it to have contributed to advancing human knowledge, even if it’s only a step on a much longer journey.”

This story first appeared in Weill Cornell Medicine, Summer 2019

Weill Cornell Medicine
Office of External Affairs
1300 York Avenue
Box 314
New York, NY 10065 Phone: (646) 962-9476

仙桃影视 免费视频在线观看22 潢色网站 报告夫人漫画免费阅读完整下拉式 swag贝拉在线观看 男女达到性高朝朝视频 泡芙短视频无限次 男同视频free radio直播 草莓视频. 污链接下载 视频 月光影视 冯珊珊视频任务 春水堂麻豆视频APP 6080电影网站 奶茶视频下载 2龙湖四平青年完整版2 热吧app在线观看 正面看美女散尿频视频 猫咪社区 亚洲 AV 日本AV 韩国AV 图区 玉薄团 China18一19第一次 久草视屏 超级国王游戏在线观看视频完整 杏仁视频 李宗瑞视频 东京热无码中文字幕av专区 免费120秒 xveoids中文版视频 md.pud麻豆传媒官网下载 豆奶短视频下载 极品女高中生 多多电影 非会员试看一分钟 抖阴直播 欧美偷拍自拍 牛人近距离偷窥中国女厕 月光视频在线观看 龚玥菲之潘金逵在线观看 向日葵视频下载app 无码国产精品高清免费 玉薄团 真实偷拍商场女厕所视频 波兰性大赛完整版视频 哺乳奶水毛片在线播放 免费网站黄页4288 丝瓜丝瓜视频看片app 成都黑帽门最新视频 SWAG在线 4不小心中出在岳中文字幕 女人性高朝床叫视频尖叫 cici直播app下载安装 红猫大本营311hmcom 向日葵视频app下载污 菠萝蜜在线视频观看试看 榴莲视频app下载安装 欧美性交 小恶魔app下载官方网 猪蜜蜜电视剧免费观看在线观看 韩国美女网 欧美性交 kk44kk 免费120秒 醉红楼在线无吗 亚国产亚洲亚洲精品视频 免费嗨片直播网 Chinese国产HDsex水滴 男同视频free radio直播 国产粉嫩小视频在线观看 画中迷电视剧全集免费 蜜桃成熟时1993年版在线观看 9UU下载 飘花伦理在手机观线 免费网站黄页4288 豆奶短视频APP 国产午夜精品视频在线播放 食神在线观看国语高清 周星驰 蓝衣电车51分钟完整版在线 欧美在线观看 樱花直播app官网最新版下载地址 向日葵app下载污下载ios 舌头伸进我下面的视频 千层浪永久VIP激活码是多少 18岁禁止观看免费 国内精品自在自线视频 中国videoses12~15 偷拍高中女洗澡在线视频 菠萝蜜免费高清 下载污视频app的软件 fly讠ngjaZZ日本8视频 芭乐视频app污版下载草莓视频 男女性关系的免费视频 触手肉动漫无修在线播放 农村大乱纶视频 国产学生无码视频 泡芙app官方网站 小蝌蚪黄软件3.0版 品色网 想要app下载网站 水果视频免费观看在线 午夜福利1000集92合集在线看午夜福利 秋葵视频下载app 柠檬网 日本jazz亚洲护士 天仙tv tx在线 草莓视频官方版在线视频观看 丝瓜视频看片APP在线观看 小姐黄直播 红色一片日本 人妻无码手机在线视频 千层浪在线观看 成都黑帽门视频完整播放 2019最新国产卡在线观看 后宫视频 sw269 潢色网站 丝瓜视频下载污 千层浪短视频官网 非洲人高清免费视频 孕妇大战黑人在线观看 秋葵视频APP安装下载大全 maya确认你已年满 地址 日本免费48福利体检区 仙桃影视 抖阴直播 日本xXXX片免费观看 免费非会员试看5分钟 茄子视频下载污污app 含蓄草 百炼成神漫画免费 欧美性爱视频 台湾swagger平台 猛虎视频app下载免费草莓 swag 在线观看 每集都开车动漫在线全集观看 午夜影院免费试看 欧美13—17sexvideos 东京热无码中文字幕av专区 千层浪盒子破解版 骚虎在线 做暖暖视频网站大全 善良的小峓子在钱播放20 第一精品福利导福航 妈妈的朋友10在线观看免费完整版中文版 免费可以看污app 从上亲到下,从里亲到外 触手肉动漫无修在线播放 久久精品这里才是免费 露B直播 在车上把她弄得死去活来 美女被干 a4yy 向日葵播放器 印度女下面毛多多视频 色欲天天天无码视频 三级片区 小草高清视频在线观看 中国女人pononon在线18 冈本视频视app下载污 uu293 亚洲小说 初恋视屏 年轻人片在线观看免费 1级杨玉环 芭乐视频app污版下载草莓视频 94sm 激动网色视频在线看 丝瓜视视频 寡妇裸体一级毛片 小蝌蚪黄软件3.0版 新版猫咪官网app 丝袜足交 麻豆视频APP 秋葵app下载在线版 日韩无码 儿子比老公的大 久久热国产 小小影视网在线观看 色婬阁在线观看 久久热国产 yezhulu备用地址24小时有效 国拍自产在线观看 一本大道免费视频高清 秋葵官方网站下载app 8x8x在线视频最新版 2019 m.ovrrrxr.icu 妖精视频app在线观看 会锦鲤吸水技巧教程视频 com.stub.stubapp.apk 草莓视频 激动网色视频在线看 pr18九天狐图片 抖阴app污 免费污网站app下载大全 百炼成神漫画免费 午夜伦理 菠萝蜜视频菠萝蜜网站污 yy8098影视理论 免费污网站app下载大全 国产精品刺激福利视频 kk44kk 小姐黄直播 萝福利莉56 俄罗斯肥婆胖妞牲交 久久热精品在线 水果视频官网在线观看 樱桃视频官网_樱桃视频app 一一完整版在线观看免费 年轻的母亲2-橙子影院-首页 年轻的母亲9 橘梨纱紧缚において中出 正在播放潮崎美亚AV播放 杨幂国产福利在线视频 暖暖视频日本在线观看 欧美毛多水多肥妇 嫩草视频 秋葵视频在线官网下载 刘伯温期期准选一肖 sexxxx yezhulu备用地址24小时有效 七仙女爱爱直播 猪蜜蜜电视剧免费观看在线观看 狗狗进去就变大视频 红色一片日本 湿湿影院 c chinese中国情侣 菠萝蜜视频免费观看 很污的app免费版 艳女伦交 刘伯温期期准选一肖 tentacion高清照片 美女自卫慰福利www 手.心app 下载安装 秋葵视频在线观看在线观看 性视频手机免费观看 茄子社区 茄子视频app官网 正在播放jk制服白丝在线 s8sp视频发布器下载链接 yy8098 强奸图片 可以试看120分钟做受 美女自卫慰福利www 刘伯温期期准选一肖 蒙嘉慧三级未删版在线 2018高清日本一道国产-在 樱桃视频官网_樱桃视频app 秋葵app下载 爱我影院在线播放视频 日本免费48福利体检区 天堂AV亚洲AV欧美AV中文 羞羞漫画免费全集漫画版 年轻漂亮的邻居完整版 国语自产 在线视视频 中日高清乱码免费视频 超级国王游戏在线观看视频完整 抖阴视频在线 b8yy影视私人影院 偷拍高中女洗澡在线视频 嫩草视频 骚虎网址 md.pud com 茄子视频app在线观看入口 baletvxyz芭乐视频 裸条门全集在线观看 mm131杨晨晨紧身 一本大道高清DVD在线播放www 秋葵官方网站下载app 水果视频免费观看在线 在线视频 国产 亚洲 素人 baletvxyz芭乐视频 樱桃短视频樱桃小视频 在线观看 俄罗斯肥妇BBw 污污软件免费下载女生看 小小影视网在线观看 麻豆视频app下载破解版 重播黑帽门观看 全能影视 菠萝蜜在线视频观看试看 狼人记录世界记录你 微杏app微杏十 年出品吧 丝瓜视频网站污app下载 被同桌摸出水好爽视频 小姐黄直播 强奸图片 xveoids中文版视频 村上里沙 番茄社区成人 3对夫妇换着玩 极品女高中生 李宗瑞全集 菠萝蜜免费高清 亚洲伊人色综合网站 亚洲AV在线 火豆 xveoids中文版视频 中国女人pononon在线18 小泽玛利亚AV在线观看 丝瓜视视频 依恋视频 慢猫网站是多少 swag弯弯作品在线观看 18成熟女性外生殖真人 寡妇裸体一级毛片 韩国女星潜规全集01 小草高清视频在线观看 茄子视频app官网 男女做爱免费视频 美女裸体做爱视频 久热久热免费视频中文字幕 yezhulu备用地址24小时有效 美女被干 sexxxx 4不小心中出在岳中文字幕 javhd高清 4480yy午夜私人影院 亚洲 欧美 自拍 小说 图片 触手肉动漫无修在线播放 小草影视视频大全 久久精彩视频 口工泰罗奥特曼超退化 一本之道高清在线3线观看 啪嗒啪嗒美女视频A片 吴施蒙在线观看 男生女生做污 抖阴富二代 国产自拍学生 原纱央莉AV大片在线观看 年轻人在线播放 正面看美女散尿频视频 向日葵播放器 日韩经典AV在线观看 日本真人试看120秒 jiz之18第一次 李宗瑞全集在线 秋葵ios下载安装 水果视频app黄下载 男生女生做污 日出水来了太痒了 视频 后宫视频 万能影视大全在线观看 正在播放潮崎美亚AV播放 丝袜足交 2龙湖四平青年完整版2 最新 国产 精品 精品 视频 泡泡影视 很污的app免费版 幸福宝网站芭乐在线 女人天堂av b.aff91cc下载app 2020国自产高清视频在线观看 7v36.co鈥唌 日本伦理java 成都黑帽事件哪里可以看 爱情论坛观看路线一免费 新版猫咪官网app 抖阴直播 Www.63W63.co鈥唌 菠萝蜜在线视频观看试看 old胖熟妇fatsex 麻豆原创免费观看 强奸图片 2012中文字幕视频 prohub官网入口 名优馆app官网下载新版 adc视频-年龄确认18 一个添上面二个 下面 蝌蚪窝app 两个人的免费视频 月光视频在线观看 欧美在线videossexmp4 久久热精品在线 婚前试爱2 18岁禁止观看免费 67194.56 色大姐 麻豆传媒作品 麻豆传煤怎么观看 免费体验120分钟福利 性爱小说 向日葵最新app视频 秋葵app下载 从上亲到下,从里亲到外 影视大全2019在线 日本另类videossexotv 五十路人妻中出在线播放 成都黑帽门最新视频 cici直播app下载安装 水果视频.app 污免费下 人妻 偷拍 无码 中文字幕 日本熟妇牲交视频 多多电影 女人是男人的未来 秋霞在线观看片无码免费 丝雨酒店聚会完整视频 老师让学生爽了一夜的视频 免费直播网站-app下载 小草视频手机在线视频 真实偷拍商场女厕所视频 成都黑帽事件哪里可以看 姓交视频 日本免费48福利体检区 一一完整版在线观看免费 夜色t v在线播放 少妇人妻挤奶水中文视频毛片 幻音音乐腐肉在线听 正在播放潮崎美亚AV播放 武藤兰老师在线观看 亚洲 欧美 自拍 小说 图片 小草青青视频在线观看 樱桃短视频樱桃小视频 在线观看 百闻影视 女人天堂av 4480yy午夜私人影院 香草成视频人app下载 丝瓜App 榴莲视频.app污免费 SWAG在线 秋葵视频下载app 刚本视频播放 性爱小说 杏吧1314直播app官方下载 成人直播app蜜柚 自拍偷拍在线视频 正在播放潮崎美亚AV播放 柠檬网 向日葵视频下载app 91香蕉app官网下载ios 制服丝袜在线视频播放免费 羞羞漫画免费全集漫画版 正面看美女散尿频视频 韩国美女网 奶茶视频app免费下载无限观看 香草app下载 妈妈的朋友6在线线观免费观看 菠萝蜜免费高清 香草视频app下载在线观看 原纱央莉AV大片在线观看 www.5APP 什么软件可以看原野小年 s8sp视频发布器下载链接 兄妹蕉谈完整版在线 麻豆 日本xXXX片免费观看 亚洲伊人色综合网站 挺进 太深了 h姿势 麻豆传媒原创视频在线看完整版 女王视频免费专区 色大姐 麻豆传媒最新观看地址 后宫视频 小草 视频 在线 观看 91精品 正面看美女散尿频视频 菠萝蜜视频菠萝蜜网站污 adc在线观看 污污的视频带点疼痛 女王视频免费专区 醉红楼在线无吗 在线观看不卡 西西人体系艺人术 灭火卫视 91香蕉app官网下载ios 花与蛇 m3 色欲色香欧美在线视频 免费国内大量揄拍在线视频 水果视频下载免费安装 视频 最不干净的女明星是谁 她们的恶作剧画免费观看漫画 爱情岛在线观看路线1 路线 村上里沙 2020年轻人在线观看视频 亚洲快播 镇江视频哪里可以看 另类专区中文 三上悠亚在线播放 久久网 草留2020最新地址一二三四五六三 九九热爱视频这里只有精品视频16 丝瓜视频下载污 会锦鲤吸水技巧教程视频 河北全程露脸对白自拍 ×关晓彤小说 一本到高清视频播放不卡 麻豆传媒原创视频在线看完整版 女人性高朝床叫视频尖叫 [台湾swag]在线观看 人妻 偷拍 无码 中文字幕 成都黑帽门最新视频 adc在线观看年龄确认18 赌神2在线完整版国语优酷 干少妇 另类专区中文 狗狗进到里面变大了 老师让学生爽了一夜的视频 鲁啊鲁啊在线观看免费 男女上下拱试看120秒免费 多多电影 肌肌桶肌肌出水视频 猛虎视频app下载免费草莓 粉蝶直播平台下载安装 台湾早期A片在线播放 日韩高清在线亚洲专区 韩国美女网 ×关晓彤小说 成人直播app蜜柚 火豆 妈妈的朋友6在线线观免费观看 2020黄频免费高清视频 mdpub麻豆在线 向日葵视频色板app下载ios污 西瓜在线观看免费视频 蝌蚪窝app 正在播放娇妻3p之大战 艾克斯直播最新版本下载安装 欧美13—17sexvideos 茄子短视频污抖音软件下载 史上最狂深喉呕吐调教 在线观看不卡 仙桃影视 芊芊影视 mdpub麻豆在线 月光视频在线观看 sis001 丝瓜视频在线观看污安卓 水果视屏 俄罗斯old青年old老太 麻豆传媒直播app在哪下载 波萝蜜视频APP官方免费下载 啊好疼你们一个一个来 717电影 蜜桃成熟时免费完整观看 717电影 adc在线观看年龄确认18 日本A片大全高清 4480yy午夜私人影院 百闻影视 8x8x网站现在是什么 免费yahoo日本高清在线观看 b.aff91 杨思敏版一级毛片 歪歪动漫在线高清观看 豆奶短视频app安卓安装 俄罗斯肥妇BBw 七妹免费视频 爱情岛论坛免费观看线路1,2, 1包头过长图 avtt3 妈妈的朋友6在线线观免费观看 67194.56 帝王受龙椅含玉势上朝 国产 亚洲 欧美 另类 污视频疼到流污水 水果视频黄 水果视频免费观看在线 超碰在线97国产碰碰可观看 国产无码在线播放 茄子app下载 年轻的母亲9 午夜福利电影 狗狗进去就变大视频 小苹果污软件免费 农村大乱纶视频 色视频线观看在线播放 Www.63W63.co鈥唌 正在播放jk制服白丝在线 水晶之恋的玩法流程 日出水来了太痒了 视频 普通用户体验120分钟免费 朵朵直播现在叫什么名 善良的小峓子在钱播放20